react-jwt-authentication-feature-image

React JWT Authentication (without Redux) example

In this tutorial, we’re gonna build a React JWT Authentication example with LocalStorage, React Router, Axios and Bootstrap (without Redux). I will show you:

  • JWT Authentication Flow for User Signup & User Login
  • Project Structure for React JWT Authentication (without Redux) with LocalStorage, React Router & Axios
  • Creating React Components with Form Validation
  • React Components for accessing protected Resources (Authorization)
  • Dynamic Navigation Bar in React App

Related Posts:
In-depth Introduction to JWT-JSON Web Token
React.js CRUD example to consume Web API

Fullstack (JWT Authentication & Authorization example):
React + Spring Boot
React + Node.js Express
React + Django
React File Upload/Download example with Spring Boot Rest Api

The example using React Hooks:
React Hooks: JWT Authentication (without Redux) example

Overview of React JWT Authentication example

We will build a React application in that:

  • There are Login/Logout, Signup pages.
  • Form data will be validated by front-end before being sent to back-end.
  • Depending on User’s roles (admin, moderator, user), Navigation Bar changes its items automatically.

Here are the screenshots:
– Signup Page:

react-jwt-authentication-signup

– Form Validation Support:

react-jwt-authentication-validation

– Login Page:

react-jwt-authentication-login

– Profile Page (for successful Login):

react-jwt-authentication-profile-page

– For Moderator account login, the navigation bar will change by authorities:

react-jwt-authentication-authorization-login

– Check Browser Local Storage:

react-jwt-authentication-localstorage

User Registration and User Login Flow

For JWT Authentication, we’re gonna call 2 endpoints:

  • POST api/auth/signup for User Registration
  • POST api/auth/signin for User Login

The following flow shows you an overview of Requests and Responses that React Client will make or receive. This React Client must add a JWT to HTTP Header before sending request to protected resources.

react-jwt-authentication-flow

You can find step by step to implement these back-end servers in following tutorial:

Demo Video

This is full React + Spring Boot JWT Authentication & Authorization demo (with form validation, check signup username/email duplicates, test authorization with 3 roles: Admin, Moderator, User):

React Component Diagram with Router, Axios & LocalStorage

Let’s look at the diagram below.

react-jwt-authentication-project-overview

– The App component is a container with React Router (BrowserRouter). Basing on the state, the navbar can display its items.

Login & Register components have form for data submission (with support of react-validation library). They call methods from auth.service to make login/register request.

auth.service methods use axios to make HTTP requests. Its also store or get JWT from Browser Local Storage inside these methods.

Home component is public for all visitor.

Profile component displays user information after the login action is successful.

BoardUser, BoardModerator, BoardAdmin components will be displayed by state user.roles. In these components, we use user.service to access protected resources from Web API.

user.service uses auth-header() helper function to add JWT to HTTP header. auth-header() returns an object containing the JWT of the currently logged in user from Local Storage.

Technology

We’re gonna use these modules:

  • React 16
  • react-router-dom 5.1.2
  • axios 0.19.2
  • react-validation 3.0.7
  • Bootstrap 4
  • validator 12.2.0

Project Structure

This is folders & files structure for this React application:

react-jwt-authentication-project-structure

With the explanation in diagram above, you can understand the project structure easily.

Setup React.js Project

Open cmd at the folder you want to save Project folder, run command:
npx create-react-app react-jwt-auth

Add React Router

– Run the command: npm install react-router-dom.
– Open src/index.js and wrap App component by BrowserRouter object.

import React from "react";
import ReactDOM from "react-dom";
import { BrowserRouter } from "react-router-dom";

import App from "./App";
import * as serviceWorker from "./serviceWorker";

ReactDOM.render(
  <BrowserRouter>
    <App />
  </BrowserRouter>,
  document.getElementById("root")
);

serviceWorker.unregister();

Import Bootstrap

Run command: npm install bootstrap.

Open src/App.js and modify the code inside it as following-

import React, { Component } from "react";
import "bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css";

class App extends Component {
  render() {
    // ...
  }
}

export default App;

Create Services

We’re gonna create two services in src/services folder:


services

auth-header.js

auth.service.js (Authentication service)

user.service.js (Data service)


Before working with these services, we need to install Axios with command:
npm install axios

Authentication service

The service uses Axios for HTTP requests and Local Storage for user information & JWT.
It provides following important methods:

  • login(): POST {username, password} & save JWT to Local Storage
  • logout(): remove JWT from Local Storage
  • register(): POST {username, email, password}
  • getCurrentUser(): get stored user information (including JWT)
import axios from "axios";

const API_URL = "http://localhost:8080/api/auth/";

class AuthService {
  login(username, password) {
    return axios
      .post(API_URL + "signin", {
        username,
        password
      })
      .then(response => {
        if (response.data.accessToken) {
          localStorage.setItem("user", JSON.stringify(response.data));
        }

        return response.data;
      });
  }

  logout() {
    localStorage.removeItem("user");
  }

  register(username, email, password) {
    return axios.post(API_URL + "signup", {
      username,
      email,
      password
    });
  }

  getCurrentUser() {
    return JSON.parse(localStorage.getItem('user'));;
  }
}

export default new AuthService();

Data service

We also have methods for retrieving data from server. In the case we access protected resources, the HTTP request needs Authorization header.

Let’s create a helper function called authHeader() inside auth-header.js:

export default function authHeader() {
  const user = JSON.parse(localStorage.getItem('user'));

  if (user && user.accessToken) {
    return { Authorization: 'Bearer ' + user.accessToken };
  } else {
    return {};
  }
}

The code above checks Local Storage for user item. If there is a logged in user with accessToken (JWT), return HTTP Authorization header. Otherwise, return an empty object.


Note: For Node.js Express back-end, please use x-access-token header like this:

export default function authHeader() {
  const user = JSON.parse(localStorage.getItem('user'));

  if (user && user.accessToken) {
    // for Node.js Express back-end
    return { 'x-access-token': user.accessToken };
  } else {
    return {};
  }
}

Now we define a service for accessing data in user.service.js:

import axios from 'axios';
import authHeader from './auth-header';

const API_URL = 'http://localhost:8080/api/test/';

class UserService {
  getPublicContent() {
    return axios.get(API_URL + 'all');
  }

  getUserBoard() {
    return axios.get(API_URL + 'user', { headers: authHeader() });
  }

  getModeratorBoard() {
    return axios.get(API_URL + 'mod', { headers: authHeader() });
  }

  getAdminBoard() {
    return axios.get(API_URL + 'admin', { headers: authHeader() });
  }
}

export default new UserService();

You can see that we add a HTTP header with the help of authHeader() function when requesting authorized resource.

Create React Components for Authentication

In src folder, create new folder named components and add several files as following:


components

login.component.js

register.component.js

profile.component.js


Form Validation overview

Now we need a library for Form validation, so we’re gonna add react-validation library to our project.
Run the command: npm install react-validation validator

To use react-validation in this example, you need to import following items:

import Form from "react-validation/build/form";
import Input from "react-validation/build/input";
import CheckButton from "react-validation/build/button";

import { isEmail } from "validator";

We also use isEmail() function from validator to verify email.

This is how we put them in render() method with validations attribute:

const required = value => {
  if (!value) {
    return (
      <div className="alert alert-danger" role="alert">
        This field is required!
      </div>
    );
  }
};

const email = value => {
  if (!isEmail(value)) {
    return (
      <div className="alert alert-danger" role="alert">
        This is not a valid email.
      </div>
    );
  }
};

render() {
  return (
  ...
    <Form
      onSubmit={this.handleLogin}
      ref={c => {this.form = c;}}
    >
      ...
      <Input
        type="text"
        className="form-control"
        ...
        validations={[required, email]}
      />

      <CheckButton
        style={{ display: "none" }}
        ref={c => {this.checkBtn = c;}}
      />
    </Form>
  ...
  );
}

We’re gonna call Form validateAll() method to check validation functions in validations. Then CheckButton helps us to verify if the form validation is successful or not. So this button will not display on the form.

this.form.validateAll();

if (this.checkBtn.context._errors.length === 0) {
  // do something when no error
}

Login Page

This page has a Form with username & password.
– We’re gonna verify them as required field.
– If the verification is ok, we call AuthService.login() method, then direct user to Profile page: this.props.history.push("/profile");, or show message with response error.

login.component.js

import React, { Component } from "react";
import Form from "react-validation/build/form";
import Input from "react-validation/build/input";
import CheckButton from "react-validation/build/button";

import AuthService from "../services/auth.service";

const required = value => {
  if (!value) {
    return (
      <div className="alert alert-danger" role="alert">
        This field is required!
      </div>
    );
  }
};

export default class Login extends Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);
    this.handleLogin = this.handleLogin.bind(this);
    this.onChangeUsername = this.onChangeUsername.bind(this);
    this.onChangePassword = this.onChangePassword.bind(this);

    this.state = {
      username: "",
      password: "",
      loading: false,
      message: ""
    };
  }

  onChangeUsername(e) {
    this.setState({
      username: e.target.value
    });
  }

  onChangePassword(e) {
    this.setState({
      password: e.target.value
    });
  }

  handleLogin(e) {
    e.preventDefault();

    this.setState({
      message: "",
      loading: true
    });

    this.form.validateAll();

    if (this.checkBtn.context._errors.length === 0) {
      AuthService.login(this.state.username, this.state.password).then(
        () => {
          this.props.history.push("/profile");
          window.location.reload();
        },
        error => {
          const resMessage =
            (error.response &&
              error.response.data &&
              error.response.data.message) ||
            error.message ||
            error.toString();

          this.setState({
            loading: false,
            message: resMessage
          });
        }
      );
    } else {
      this.setState({
        loading: false
      });
    }
  }

  render() {
    return (
      <div className="col-md-12">
        <div className="card card-container">
          <img
            src="//ssl.gstatic.com/accounts/ui/avatar_2x.png"
            alt="profile-img"
            className="profile-img-card"
          />

          <Form
            onSubmit={this.handleLogin}
            ref={c => {
              this.form = c;
            }}
          >
            <div className="form-group">
              <label htmlFor="username">Username</label>
              <Input
                type="text"
                className="form-control"
                name="username"
                value={this.state.username}
                onChange={this.onChangeUsername}
                validations={[required]}
              />
            </div>

            <div className="form-group">
              <label htmlFor="password">Password</label>
              <Input
                type="password"
                className="form-control"
                name="password"
                value={this.state.password}
                onChange={this.onChangePassword}
                validations={[required]}
              />
            </div>

            <div className="form-group">
              <button
                className="btn btn-primary btn-block"
                disabled={this.state.loading}
              >
                {this.state.loading && (
                  <span className="spinner-border spinner-border-sm"></span>
                )}
                <span>Login</span>
              </button>
            </div>

            {this.state.message && (
              <div className="form-group">
                <div className="alert alert-danger" role="alert">
                  {this.state.message}
                </div>
              </div>
            )}
            <CheckButton
              style={{ display: "none" }}
              ref={c => {
                this.checkBtn = c;
              }}
            />
          </Form>
        </div>
      </div>
    );
  }
}

Register Page

This page is similar to Login Page.

For Form Validation, there are some more details:

  • username: required, between 3 and 20 characters
  • email: required, email format
  • password: required, between 6 and 40 characters

We’re gonna call AuthService.register() method and show response message (successful or error).

register.component.js

import React, { Component } from "react";
import Form from "react-validation/build/form";
import Input from "react-validation/build/input";
import CheckButton from "react-validation/build/button";
import { isEmail } from "validator";

import AuthService from "../services/auth.service";

const required = value => {
  if (!value) {
    return (
      <div className="alert alert-danger" role="alert">
        This field is required!
      </div>
    );
  }
};

const email = value => {
  if (!isEmail(value)) {
    return (
      <div className="alert alert-danger" role="alert">
        This is not a valid email.
      </div>
    );
  }
};

const vusername = value => {
  if (value.length < 3 || value.length > 20) {
    return (
      <div className="alert alert-danger" role="alert">
        The username must be between 3 and 20 characters.
      </div>
    );
  }
};

const vpassword = value => {
  if (value.length < 6 || value.length > 40) {
    return (
      <div className="alert alert-danger" role="alert">
        The password must be between 6 and 40 characters.
      </div>
    );
  }
};

export default class Register extends Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);
    this.handleRegister = this.handleRegister.bind(this);
    this.onChangeUsername = this.onChangeUsername.bind(this);
    this.onChangeEmail = this.onChangeEmail.bind(this);
    this.onChangePassword = this.onChangePassword.bind(this);

    this.state = {
      username: "",
      email: "",
      password: "",
      successful: false,
      message: ""
    };
  }

  onChangeUsername(e) {
    this.setState({
      username: e.target.value
    });
  }

  onChangeEmail(e) {
    this.setState({
      email: e.target.value
    });
  }

  onChangePassword(e) {
    this.setState({
      password: e.target.value
    });
  }

  handleRegister(e) {
    e.preventDefault();

    this.setState({
      message: "",
      successful: false
    });

    this.form.validateAll();

    if (this.checkBtn.context._errors.length === 0) {
      AuthService.register(
        this.state.username,
        this.state.email,
        this.state.password
      ).then(
        response => {
          this.setState({
            message: response.data.message,
            successful: true
          });
        },
        error => {
          const resMessage =
            (error.response &&
              error.response.data &&
              error.response.data.message) ||
            error.message ||
            error.toString();

          this.setState({
            successful: false,
            message: resMessage
          });
        }
      );
    }
  }

  render() {
    return (
      <div className="col-md-12">
        <div className="card card-container">
          <img
            src="//ssl.gstatic.com/accounts/ui/avatar_2x.png"
            alt="profile-img"
            className="profile-img-card"
          />

          <Form
            onSubmit={this.handleRegister}
            ref={c => {
              this.form = c;
            }}
          >
            {!this.state.successful && (
              <div>
                <div className="form-group">
                  <label htmlFor="username">Username</label>
                  <Input
                    type="text"
                    className="form-control"
                    name="username"
                    value={this.state.username}
                    onChange={this.onChangeUsername}
                    validations={[required, vusername]}
                  />
                </div>

                <div className="form-group">
                  <label htmlFor="email">Email</label>
                  <Input
                    type="text"
                    className="form-control"
                    name="email"
                    value={this.state.email}
                    onChange={this.onChangeEmail}
                    validations={[required, email]}
                  />
                </div>

                <div className="form-group">
                  <label htmlFor="password">Password</label>
                  <Input
                    type="password"
                    className="form-control"
                    name="password"
                    value={this.state.password}
                    onChange={this.onChangePassword}
                    validations={[required, vpassword]}
                  />
                </div>

                <div className="form-group">
                  <button className="btn btn-primary btn-block">Sign Up</button>
                </div>
              </div>
            )}

            {this.state.message && (
              <div className="form-group">
                <div
                  className={
                    this.state.successful
                      ? "alert alert-success"
                      : "alert alert-danger"
                  }
                  role="alert"
                >
                  {this.state.message}
                </div>
              </div>
            )}
            <CheckButton
              style={{ display: "none" }}
              ref={c => {
                this.checkBtn = c;
              }}
            />
          </Form>
        </div>
      </div>
    );
  }
}

Profile Page

This page gets current User from Local Storage by calling AuthService.getCurrentUser() method and show user information (with token).

profile.component.js

import React, { Component } from "react";
import AuthService from "../services/auth.service";

export default class Profile extends Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);

    this.state = {
      currentUser: AuthService.getCurrentUser()
    };
  }

  render() {
    const { currentUser } = this.state;

    return (
      <div className="container">
        <header className="jumbotron">
          <h3>
            <strong>{currentUser.username}</strong> Profile
          </h3>
        </header>
        <p>
          <strong>Token:</strong>{" "}
          {currentUser.accessToken.substring(0, 20)} ...{" "}
          {currentUser.accessToken.substr(currentUser.accessToken.length - 20)}
        </p>
        <p>
          <strong>Id:</strong>{" "}
          {currentUser.id}
        </p>
        <p>
          <strong>Email:</strong>{" "}
          {currentUser.email}
        </p>
        <strong>Authorities:</strong>
        <ul>
          {currentUser.roles &&
            currentUser.roles.map((role, index) => <li key={index}>{role}</li>)}
        </ul>
      </div>
    );
  }
}

Create React Components for accessing Resources

These components will use UserService to request data from API.


components

home.component.js

board-user.component.js

board-moderator.component.js

board-admin.component.js


Home Page

This is a public page that shows public content. People don’t need to log in to view this page.

home.component.js

import React, { Component } from "react";

import UserService from "../services/user.service";

export default class Home extends Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);

    this.state = {
      content: ""
    };
  }

  componentDidMount() {
    UserService.getPublicContent().then(
      response => {
        this.setState({
          content: response.data
        });
      },
      error => {
        this.setState({
          content:
            (error.response && error.response.data) ||
            error.message ||
            error.toString()
        });
      }
    );
  }

  render() {
    return (
      <div className="container">
        <header className="jumbotron">
          <h3>{this.state.content}</h3>
        </header>
      </div>
    );
  }
}

Role-based Pages

We’re gonna have 3 pages for accessing protected data:

  • BoardUser page calls UserService.getUserBoard()
  • BoardModerator page calls UserService.getModeratorBoard()
  • BoardAdmin page calls UserService.getAdminBoard()

I will show you User Page for example, other Pages are similar to this Page.

board-user.component.js

import React, { Component } from "react";

import UserService from "../services/user.service";

export default class BoardUser extends Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);

    this.state = {
      content: ""
    };
  }

  componentDidMount() {
    UserService.getUserBoard().then(
      response => {
        this.setState({
          content: response.data
        });
      },
      error => {
        this.setState({
          content:
            (error.response &&
              error.response.data &&
              error.response.data.message) ||
            error.message ||
            error.toString()
        });
      }
    );
  }

  render() {
    return (
      <div className="container">
        <header className="jumbotron">
          <h3>{this.state.content}</h3>
        </header>
      </div>
    );
  }
}

Add Navbar and define Routes

Now we add a navigation bar in App component. This is the root container for our application.
The navbar dynamically changes by login status and current User’s roles.

  • Home: always
  • Login & Sign Up: if user hasn’t signed in yet
  • User: AuthService.getCurrentUser() returns a value
  • Board Moderator: roles includes ROLE_MODERATOR
  • Board Admin: roles includes ROLE_ADMIN

src/App.js

import React, { Component } from "react";
import { BrowserRouter as Router, Switch, Route, Link } from "react-router-dom";
import "bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css";
import "./App.css";

import AuthService from "./services/auth.service";

import Login from "./components/login.component";
import Register from "./components/register.component";
import Home from "./components/home.component";
import Profile from "./components/profile.component";
import BoardUser from "./components/board-user.component";
import BoardModerator from "./components/board-moderator.component";
import BoardAdmin from "./components/board-admin.component";

class App extends Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);
    this.logOut = this.logOut.bind(this);

    this.state = {
      showModeratorBoard: false,
      showAdminBoard: false,
      currentUser: undefined
    };
  }

  componentDidMount() {
    const user = AuthService.getCurrentUser();

    if (user) {
      this.setState({
        currentUser: user,
        showModeratorBoard: user.roles.includes("ROLE_MODERATOR"),
        showAdminBoard: user.roles.includes("ROLE_ADMIN")
      });
    }
  }

  logOut() {
    AuthService.logout();
  }

  render() {
    const { currentUser, showModeratorBoard, showAdminBoard } = this.state;

    return (
      <Router>
        <div>
          <nav className="navbar navbar-expand navbar-dark bg-dark">
            <Link to={"/"} className="navbar-brand">
              bezKoder
            </Link>
            <div className="navbar-nav mr-auto">
              <li className="nav-item">
                <Link to={"/home"} className="nav-link">
                  Home
                </Link>
              </li>

              {showModeratorBoard && (
                <li className="nav-item">
                  <Link to={"/mod"} className="nav-link">
                    Moderator Board
                  </Link>
                </li>
              )}

              {showAdminBoard && (
                <li className="nav-item">
                  <Link to={"/admin"} className="nav-link">
                    Admin Board
                  </Link>
                </li>
              )}

              {currentUser && (
                <li className="nav-item">
                  <Link to={"/user"} className="nav-link">
                    User
                  </Link>
                </li>
              )}
            </div>

            {currentUser ? (
              <div className="navbar-nav ml-auto">
                <li className="nav-item">
                  <Link to={"/profile"} className="nav-link">
                    {currentUser.username}
                  </Link>
                </li>
                <li className="nav-item">
                  <a href="/login" className="nav-link" onClick={this.logOut}>
                    LogOut
                  </a>
                </li>
              </div>
            ) : (
              <div className="navbar-nav ml-auto">
                <li className="nav-item">
                  <Link to={"/login"} className="nav-link">
                    Login
                  </Link>
                </li>

                <li className="nav-item">
                  <Link to={"/register"} className="nav-link">
                    Sign Up
                  </Link>
                </li>
              </div>
            )}
          </nav>

          <div className="container mt-3">
            <Switch>
              <Route exact path={["/", "/home"]} component={Home} />
              <Route exact path="/login" component={Login} />
              <Route exact path="/register" component={Register} />
              <Route exact path="/profile" component={Profile} />
              <Route path="/user" component={BoardUser} />
              <Route path="/mod" component={BoardModerator} />
              <Route path="/admin" component={BoardAdmin} />
            </Switch>
          </div>
        </div>
      </Router>
    );
  }
}

export default App;

Add CSS style for React Components

Open src/App.css and write some CSS code as following:

label {
  display: block;
  margin-top: 10px;
}

.card-container.card {
  max-width: 350px !important;
  padding: 40px 40px;
}

.card {
  background-color: #f7f7f7;
  padding: 20px 25px 30px;
  margin: 0 auto 25px;
  margin-top: 50px;
  -moz-border-radius: 2px;
  -webkit-border-radius: 2px;
  border-radius: 2px;
  -moz-box-shadow: 0px 2px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.3);
  -webkit-box-shadow: 0px 2px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.3);
  box-shadow: 0px 2px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.3);
}

.profile-img-card {
  width: 96px;
  height: 96px;
  margin: 0 auto 10px;
  display: block;
  -moz-border-radius: 50%;
  -webkit-border-radius: 50%;
  border-radius: 50%;
}

Configure Port for React JWT Auth Client with Web API

Because most of HTTP Server use CORS configuration that accepts resource sharing retrictted to some sites or ports, so we also need to configure port for our App.

In project folder, create .env file with following content:

PORT=8081

Now we’ve set our app running at port 8081. You will need to do this work if you use one of following Servers:

Conclusion

Congratulation!

Today we’ve done so many interesting things. I hope you understand the overall layers of our React JWT Authentication App (without Redux) using LocalStorage, React Router, Axios, Bootstrap. Now you can apply it in your project at ease.

If you want to use React Hooks for this example, you can find the implementation at:
React Hooks: JWT Authentication (without Redux) example

Happy learning, see you again!

Further Reading

Source Code

You can find the complete source code for this example on Github.

54 thoughts to “React JWT Authentication (without Redux) example”

  1. Excellent post, it helped me a lot. Thank you!.
    Could you give me an idea of ​​how to do this with Hooks (useState, useEffect)?

        1. How can I choose the roles is either user or admin or moderator . It’s makes me confuse . Please help me out

    1. Hi, you can follow the steps in the tutorial and try to make your project work.
      I’ve tested the source code and it worked definitely. But I think sharing the source code early will not help people because they need to try their best first.

      Yeah, I will upload my code to Github. πŸ™‚
      You can return to this page and get it in 2 or 3 weeks.

  2. Hi bezkoder,

    I’m writing my application and your tutorial is very helpful for me. Everything is working well, including JWT etc. I can get all my data and post something in Postman using token.

    But when I try to use POST method in fetch function, I receive “Access denied” message.

    Could you show, please, how to write example fetch (or axios) method according to this tutorial? (with token use)

  3. Hi,

    when I fetch GET method, everything is working, i.e.:

    componentDidMount() {
            this.setState({isLoading: true});
            const currentUser = AuthService.getCurrentUser();
            const id = currentUser.id;
            fetch('api/cases/user/' + id, {headers: authHeader()})
                .then(response => response.json())
                .then(data => this.setState({cases: data, isLoading: false}));
        }
    

    but for POST method, i.e.:

    async handleSubmit(event) {
            event.preventDefault();
            const {aCase} = this.state;
    
            await fetch('/api/cases', {
                method: 'POST',
                headers: {
                    'Accept': 'application/json',
                    'Content-Type': 'application/json',
                    'Authorization': authHeader()
                },
                body: JSON.stringify(aCase)
            });
            this.props.history.goBack();
        }
    

    the result is: Access denied.

    At first glance, do you see any error in this method?

    1. Hi bezkoder, problem solved πŸ™‚
      For people interested in it:

      async handleSubmit(event) {
              event.preventDefault();
              const {aCase} = this.state;
              const header = new Headers(authHeader());
              header.set('Accept', 'application/json');
              header.set('Content-Type', 'application/json');
              await fetch('/api/cases', {
                  method: 'POST',
                  headers: header,
                  body: JSON.stringify(aCase)
              });
              this.props.history.goBack();
          }
      
  4. Sir, to me you are God sent , you have taught me what I have been trying and searching the whole web to learn I appreciate you a lot keep the good work.

  5. Hi Mr Bezkoder,
    Thank you for this great tutorial!
    You saved my day.
    Could we have a Front-end version with React Redux and JWT Passport?
    In any case thank you!!!

  6. thanks for share this
    by the way, in your code, my intelliJ also vscode have error for spread operator, any workaround to fix this.

  7. This is a great tutorial. Intuitive and well explained. Do you have any examples of how to convert the localStoarge to an httpOnly cookie for the JWT token (read that Local Storage is easier to attack)

  8. Excellent tutorial, best one I’ve seen in fact! I cloned it from your site but when it comes up on localhost:8081, it shows “Network Error” in the content area uner the navbar. The NavBar looks correct and I if I click Sign Up link, it shows up. But if I enter a Username, Email, and Password, it also shows “Network Error” when I click the form’s blue Sign Up button. Suggestions?

    1. Hi, this is just a front-end project. You should implement one of the backend servers that I provided in this tutorial for fullstack development πŸ™‚

  9. Hello – your node, express, jwt, mongo, and react tutorials work great locally. However, when I push the app to Heroku, I get a network error when I try to login or create an account. Any suggestions?

      1. The problem is I am not sure what to change it to. Heroku dynamically sets the port. So does that mean I need to put the heroku app url in the cors setup? Also do I keep the auth-service and user-service ports for server?

  10. Hi,

    First of all, let me thank you for your great tutorial they saved me lot of time.
    I just implemented the SpringBoot tutorial and it worked perfectly for my needs.
    https://bezkoder.com/spring-boot-jwt-authentication/
    Now I need to add a ReactJS front end and I am trying to add this tutorial. My problem is that when I submit login form I got:

    Unhandled Rejection (TypeError): Cannot read property ‘push’ of undefined

    at this line:
    this.props.history.push(“/profile”);

    consider that your code works and I am trying to import in my projects only parts I am interested in. The problem is that in this porting I don’t know what is causing the issue. Consider also that I am using the same libraries.

    1. I solved adding this in the App.js:

      “`

      “`

      then in the SignIn.js file where I have defined my SignIn component passed the history:

      “`

      “`
      in your case, you don’t have a separate component for the form and this confused me.

      1. Hi, I don’t know why your code didn’t display. You can post your code in raw format, I will modify it for better view πŸ™‚

      2. Hi,
        Try again to put code. I think the problem are < and >. I have three files: App.js, SigniIn.js and SignInForm.js, basically a separate component for the form.

        I solved adding this in the App.js:

        <Route exact path="/signin" component={SignIn}/>

        before I had:

        <Route exact path="/signin"><SignIn></Route>

        and in SignIn.js:

        <SignInForm history={this.props.history}/>

        finally in SignIn for I could use:

        this.props.history.push(β€œ/profile”);

        Hope this time the code will be print

        1. I did a better fix using withRouter from react-route-dom, basically, you only need to mark the components that need to use history. In my case, I avoid passing history from SignIn.js page to SignInForm and simply declare at the end of SignInForm.js this:

          export default withRouter(SignInForm);
          

          the problem is that in my app I have a sidebar and a status bar to update depending on whether the user is logged in or not. On both these components, I need to pass this.props.history including some intermediary components. The approach above simplifies everything.

          In your case is not required but if people have some intermediary components not referenced directly from Route this should be the good approach to solve the problem.

  11. How do u store the id ,name , role and jwt token in the same time , my controller return just the token how can i do ?

    1. Hi, you can see the way my controller returns HTTP response in the backend tutorial (Spring Boot/ Node.js Express). It contains all of id, name, role and jwt token.

  12. Hi again,

    I have another question. It seems that the session expiration is only managed on server side but it should be on the front end side as well. Am I wrong? What can be done to do this?

      1. I don’t think this is the solution according to this:
        https://stackoverflow.com/questions/5523140/html5-local-storage-vs-session-storage

        the session storage doesn’t manage automatically expiration. sessionStorage only saves by Tab instead of the whole browser so the benefit is minimal. I would prefer to keep logged in if I access from another tab.

        The solution I am going to implement saves the timestamp together with the token in AuthService.login. AuthService.logout removes both the info. Whenever the application asks for the user token a check on expiration is done (the elapsed can be hardcoded but a better approach is to have it configurable). If the logged user is expired (passed the 1 day of validity) the Auth. getCurrentUser remove the user and timestamp from localStorage and returns null and the application understands the user must log out (go to the login page and refresh the window).

        At this point, I have a question: if a token on server-side expires is it a good decision to log out a user and ask to login again? Wouldn’t a refresh token be better? I am new to SpringBoot and I do not know what are the best practices for Access Token vs Refresh Token.

        Finally, there is then another typical scenario that Login scenarios must cover, log out a user after X minutes of inactivity. Any suggestions on how this can be done?

        Thank you in advance for the help.

        1. Ah yeah, now I understand your idea. You can research more details about Sliding-sessions.

          I will try to implement and write the tutorial when having time πŸ™‚

  13. Hi there,
    just a question, how do you set role on signup? I’m askin’ about it cuz I’m trying to define my role during the signUp but i can’t find when you send the role.. it seems always be a req with no role.. the code exit with a default role [1] = user

    1. Hi, in this tutorial, the payload in signup request doesn’t have role and the backend processes 'user' as default role. If you wanna define role during the signup, you can add role[] inside the payload πŸ™‚

  14. Hi, thank you for your tutorials, it’s really helpful to me. Could you please tell me how to connect this react framework to your node.js backend? BTW, when I npm start this app, it returns Network Error. How this happens?

    1. Hi, first you should look at how we set the HTTP request header in auth-header.js file.
      Then, just run Node.js backend with the instruction in the tutorial.

      There are some things you need to notice: CORS configuration for backend, and setting port in .env for frontend.

  15. Thank you very much for this, you’ve done an amazing work. It’s very understandable, and works perfectly.
    Is it possible to use this as a starting point for my projects ?

  16. Hi,

    First, amazing tutorials! Thank you so much!

    I followed both the backend node js + mongodb JWT tutorial and the React one. Everything works perfectly except one thing. When i try to tunnel through NGROK, i get network error on the home page. Any idea why? Or how i can fix this?

    Below is what is in the console log.

    from origin ‘http://ba3f2c631ae9.ngrok.io’ has been blocked by CORS policy: The ‘Access-Control-Allow-Origin’ header has a value ‘http://localhost:8081’ that is not equal to the supplied origin.

  17. Hi,
    for me sign in is successful but when i Login again with same user name and password it says

    “profile.component.js:20 Uncaught TypeError: Cannot read property ‘username’ of null”

    and also it is not reading the below code:
    {this.state.content}in home.component.js
    so i changed the above code to
    const {content} = this.props;
    return (

    {content}

    now no error but home screen is blank without any content.

    Please help me in the above 2 problems.

  18. hi, first thank you for this amazing work, i have runed both the back and front and but i don’t know how to link between them ??

    1. Hi, you only need to run both with instruction in the tutorials. πŸ™‚
      – Backend: port 8080
      – Frontend: port 8081

      Then open browser with url: http://localhost:8081/

  19. Hey,

    Very nice tutorial!

    I have a question regarding the logout process. How to implement a redirect/re-render here? So when the user is removed from the storage we should redirect to / or /login and rerender the page.

    Many thanks,
    TZ

  20. Hi,

    Great tutorial, just like all the tutorials you post. I just have one question that might be a bug. If you log out and then use the back button of your browser, it will take you to the previous page and it doesn’t check for authentication. So it shows you the page. If you then refresh that page it checks for authentication and will divert to the login screen.
    Am i missing something or did I do something wrong? You shouldnt be able to use the back button when logged out to see the previous page.

    Thanks
    Eddie

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