Upload & resize multiple images in Node.js using Express, Multer, Sharp

In this tutorial, I will show you how to upload & resize multiple images in Node.js using Express, Multer and Sharp.

Related Post: How to upload multiple files in Node.js


There is a couple of things to learn before we go to the practice part.

Uploading multiple images using Multer

Upload multiple images View

In HTML, we create a form with following elements:

  • action="/multiple-upload"
  • enctype="multipart/form-data"
  • multiple input
<form
  action="/multiple-upload"
  method="POST"
  enctype="multipart/form-data">
    ...
    <input type="file" multiple>
    ...
</form>

Using Multer to upload multiple Images

Let’s configure multer and create some functions.

const multer = require("multer");

const multerStorage = multer.memoryStorage();

const multerFilter = (req, file, cb) => {
  if (file.mimetype.startsWith("image")) {
    cb(null, true);
  } else {
    cb("Please upload only images.", false);
  }
};

const upload = multer({
  storage: multerStorage,
  fileFilter: multerFilter
});

const uploadFiles = upload.array("images", 10); // limit to 10 images

const uploadImages = (req, res, next) => {
  uploadFiles(req, res, err => {
    if (err instanceof multer.MulterError) { // A Multer error occurred when uploading.
      if (err.code === "LIMIT_UNEXPECTED_FILE") { // Too many images exceeding the allowed limit
        // ...
      }
    } else if (err) {
      // handle other errors
    }

    // Everything is ok.
    next();
  });
};

In the code above, we’ve done these steps:
– First, import multer module.
– Next, configure multer to store images in memory as a buffer so that we could then use it later by other processes (resize the images before saving them to disk).
– We also define a filter to only allow images to pass.
– Then use multer object to create uploadFiles function with the field images and the max count. The array of files will be stored in req.files.
– We catch errors by calling the uploadFiles middleware function, if there is no error, call next().

Resizing images using Sharp

Now we’re gonna process all of uploaded images (which are in memory).

const sharp = require("sharp");

const resizeImages = async (req, res, next) => {
  if (!req.files) return next();

  req.body.images = [];
  await Promise.all(
    req.files.map(async file => {
      const newFilename = ...;

      await sharp(file.buffer)
        .resize(640, 320)
        .toFormat("jpeg")
        .jpeg({ quality: 90 })
        .toFile(`upload/${newFilename}`);

      req.body.images.push(newFilename);
    })
  );

  next();
};

Let me explain the code.
– We import sharp module.
– The resizeImages will be an async function in that:

  • We check if there are no images uploaded, move straight to the next middleware
  • For each image, we return a Promise, we need all of the Promises done before calling next(). So we get an array of all of these Promises using array.map() then put it in Promise.all() function.
  • We process every image in the images array using resize() method, then change the format (with file extension) to jpeg with toFormat() and save it to disk using toFile() method.

The Route Handler Functions

We write all middleware functions above in a Controller called upload.
We use Express Router to handle POST action to "/multiple-upload" endpoint.

const express = require("express");
const router = express.Router();
const uploadController = require("./../controllers/upload");

let routes = app => {
  ...
  router.post(
    "/multiple-upload",
    uploadController.uploadImages,
    uploadController.resizeImages,
    uploadController.getResult
  );

  return app.use("/", router);
};

module.exports = routes;

You can see that we insert uploadImages and resizeImages, then uploadController.getResult. This is because we will process images before showing the result message.

Demo

Open browser for the app:

node-js-upload-resize-multiple-images-demo-open-browser

Choose some images to upload & resize:

node-js-upload-resize-multiple-images-demo-import-images

Click on Submit button, if the process is successful, browser shows the uploaded images:

node-js-upload-resize-multiple-images-demo-result-successful

Check the upload folder, you can see the resized images:

node-js-upload-resize-multiple-images-demo-result-successful-folder

If you choose the file without image format, or the images you want to upload exceeds the allowed amount, the browser will show the messages.

node-js-upload-resize-multiple-images-demo-result-failed

Practice: Upload & Resize multiple images with Node.js

Now I’m gonna show you how to build this Node.js application step by step.

Project Structure

This is our project structure:

node-js-upload-resize-multiple-images-project-structure

upload: the folder for storing uploaded images.
views/index.html: contains HTML form for user to upload images.
routes/web.js: defines routes for endpoints that is called from views, use controllers to handle requests.
controllers:

  • home.js returns views/index.html
  • upload.js handles upload & resize multiple images with middleware functions.

server.js: initializes routes, runs Express app.

Setup Node.js modules

Change current directory to the root folder of our project, then install Express, Multer, Sharp with the following command:

npm install express multer sharp

Create View for uploading multiple images

In views folder, create index.html with the HTML and Javascript code as below:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
  <head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8" />
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0" />
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge" />
    <title>Node.js upload & resize multiple files</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.3.1/css/bootstrap.min.css" />
    <style>
      div.preview-images > img {
        width: 30%;
      }
    </style>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div class="container">
      <div class="row">
        <div class="col-sm-8 mt-3">
          <h4>Node.js upload & resize multiple files - bezkoder.com</h4>

          <form class="mt-4"
            action="/multiple-upload"
            method="POST"
            enctype="multipart/form-data"
          >
            <input
              type="file"
              name="images"
              multiple
              id="input-images"
              class="form-control-file border"
            />
            <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary mt-2">Submit</button>
          </form>
        </div>
      </div>
      <hr />
      <div class="row">
        <div class="col-sm-12">
          <div class="preview-images"></div>
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
    <script src="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.3.1/js/bootstrap.bundle.min.js"></script>
    <script src="https://code.jquery.com/jquery-3.4.1.min.js"></script>
    <script>
      $(document).ready(function() {
        let imagesPreview = function(input, placeToInsertImagePreview) {
          if (input.files) {
            let filesAmount = input.files.length;
            for (i = 0; i < filesAmount; i++) {
              let reader = new FileReader();
              reader.onload = function(event) {
                $($.parseHTML("<img>"))
                  .attr("src", event.target.result)
                  .appendTo(placeToInsertImagePreview);
              };
              reader.readAsDataURL(input.files[i]);
            }
          }
        };
        $("#input-images").on("change", function() {
          imagesPreview(this, "div.preview-images");
        });
      });
    </script>
  </body>
</html>

The HTML code is easy to understand, the jQuery script shows preview of the chosen images.
We also use Bootstrap to make the UI more comfortable to read.

Create Controller for the view

Under controllers folder, create home.js file.

const path = require("path");

const home = (req, res) => {
  return res.sendFile(path.join(`${__dirname}/../views/index.html`));
};

module.exports = {
  getHome: home
};

Create Controller for processing Images

This is the main code of our Node.js project. The Upload Controller uses both multer & sharp module.

We’re gonna export 3 middleware functions:

  • uploadImages
  • resizeImages
  • getResult
const multer = require("multer");
const sharp = require("sharp");

const multerStorage = multer.memoryStorage();

const multerFilter = (req, file, cb) => {
  if (file.mimetype.startsWith("image")) {
    cb(null, true);
  } else {
    cb("Please upload only images.", false);
  }
};

const upload = multer({
  storage: multerStorage,
  fileFilter: multerFilter
});

const uploadFiles = upload.array("images", 10);

const uploadImages = (req, res, next) => {
  uploadFiles(req, res, err => {
    if (err instanceof multer.MulterError) {
      if (err.code === "LIMIT_UNEXPECTED_FILE") {
        return res.send("Too many files to upload.");
      }
    } else if (err) {
      return res.send(err);
    }

    next();
  });
};

const resizeImages = async (req, res, next) => {
  if (!req.files) return next();

  req.body.images = [];
  await Promise.all(
    req.files.map(async file => {
      const filename = file.originalname.replace(/\..+$/, "");
      const newFilename = `bezkoder-${filename}-${Date.now()}.jpeg`;

      await sharp(file.buffer)
        .resize(640, 320)
        .toFormat("jpeg")
        .jpeg({ quality: 90 })
        .toFile(`upload/${newFilename}`);

      req.body.images.push(newFilename);
    })
  );

  next();
};

const getResult = async (req, res) => {
  if (req.body.images.length <= 0) {
    return res.send(`You must select at least 1 image.`);
  }

  const images = req.body.images
    .map(image => "
  • " + image + "
  • ") .join(""); return res.send(`Images were uploaded:
      ${images}
    `); }; module.exports = { uploadImages: uploadImages, resizeImages: resizeImages, getResult: getResult };

    In the resizeImages function, we:
    – get each image name and create new name for it with jpeg extension.
    – resize to 640x320
    – change the image format to jpeg
    – set the quality to 90% of the original image
    – save the image file to upload folder

    Define routes

    We define routes in routes/web.js like this.
    There are 2 routes:
    – GET: Home page for the upload form.
    – POST "/multiple-upload" to use three uploadController functions.

    const express = require("express");
    const router = express.Router();
    const homeController = require("../controllers/home");
    const uploadController = require("./../controllers/upload");
    
    let routes = app => {
      router.get("/", homeController.getHome);
    
      router.post(
        "/multiple-upload",
        uploadController.uploadImages,
        uploadController.resizeImages,
        uploadController.getResult
      );
    
      return app.use("/", router);
    };
    
    module.exports = routes;
    

    Create Express app server

    Finally, we only need to create an Express server.

    server.js

    const express = require("express");
    const app = express();
    const initRoutes = require("./routes/web");
    
    app.use(express.urlencoded({ extended: true }));
    initRoutes(app);
    
    let port = 3000;
    app.listen(port, () => {
      console.log(`Running at localhost:${port}`);
    });
    

    Run the app

    Before running this Node.js app, you must create upload folder in the project root folder.

    Run following command:
    node src/server.js

    If everything is ok, the console shows:

    Running at localhost:3000

    Open browser with url http://localhost:3000/ and you can check the result now.

    Conclusion

    Today we’ve learned way to upload multiple images using Express and Multer, we also know how to limit the number of images, resize these images and change the extensions using Sharp.

    Happy learning! See you again.

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