node-js-express-vue-jwt-auth-mysql-feature-image

Node.js Express + Vue.js: JWT Authentication & Authorization example

In this tutorial, we will learn how to build a full stack Node.js Express + Vue.js Authentication example. The back-end server uses Node.js Express with jsonwebtoken for JWT authentication and Sequelize for interacting with MySQL database & Authorization. The front-end will be created with Vue and Vuex. We’ll also use vee-validate to perform Form validation and vue-fontawesome for make our UI more comfortable to view.


JWT (JSON Web Token)

Comparing with Session-based Authentication that need to store Session on Cookie, the big advantage of Token-based Authentication is that we store the JSON Web Token (JWT) on Client side: Local Storage for Browser, Keychain for IOS and SharedPreferences for Android… So we don’t need to build another backend project that supports Native Apps or an additional Authentication module for Native App users.

in-depth-introduction-jwt-token-based-authentication

There are three important parts of a JWT: Header, Payload, Signature. Together they are combined to a standard structure: header.payload.signature.

The Client typically attaches JWT in x-access-token header:

x-access-token: [header].[payload].[signature]

For more details, you can visit:
In-depth Introduction to JWT-JSON Web Token

Node.js Express Vue.js Authentication example

It will be a full stack, with Node.js Express for back-end and Vue.js for front-end. The access is verified by JWT Authentication.

  • User can signup new account, login with username & password.
  • Authorization by the role of the User (admin, moderator, user)

Screenshots

The images below shows screenshots of our Vue.js App.

– Anyone can access a public page before logging in:

node-js-express-vue-jwt-auth-mysql-get-public-content

– A new User can signup:

node-js-express-vue-jwt-auth-mysql-signup

– Now User can Login. If it’s succesful, App directs the User to Profile page:

node-js-express-vue-jwt-auth-mysql-login

– UI for admin role

node-js-express-vue-jwt-auth-mysql-admin-login

– If a User who doesn’t have Admin role tries to access Admin/Moderator Board page:

node-js-express-vue-jwt-auth-mysql-unauthorized

Demo Video

This is full Node.js Express + Vue.js Authentication demo Video (with form validation, check signup username/email duplicates, test authorization with 3 roles: Admin, Moderator, User):

[coming soon on Youtube…]

Flow for User Registration and User Login

The diagram shows flow of User Registration, User Login and Authorization process.

node-js-jwt-authentication-mysql-flow

We have 2 endpoints for authentication:

  • api/auth/signup for User Registration
  • api/auth/signin for User Login

A legal JWT must be added to HTTP x-access-token Header if Client accesses protected resources.

Back-end with Node.js Express & Sequelize

Overview

Our Node.js Express Application can be summarized in the diagram below:

node-js-jwt-authentication-mysql-architecture

Via Express routes, HTTP request that matches a route will be checked by CORS Middleware before coming to Security layer.

Security layer includes:

  • JWT Authentication Middleware: verify SignUp, verify token
  • Authorization Middleware: check User’s roles with record in database

If these middlewares throw any error, a message will be sent as HTTP response.

Controllers interact with MySQL Database via Sequelize and send HTTP response (token, user information, data based on roles…) to client.

Technology

  • Express 4.17.1
  • bcryptjs 2.4.3
  • jsonwebtoken 8.5.1
  • Sequelize 5.21.3
  • MySQL

Project Structure

This is directory structure for our Node.js Express application:

node-js-jwt-authentication-mysql-project-structure

config

  • configure MySQL database & Sequelize
  • configure Auth Key

routes

  • auth.routes.js: POST signup & signin
  • user.routes.js: GET public & protected resources

middlewares

  • verifySignUp.js: check duplicate Username or Email
  • authJwt.js: verify Token, check User roles in database

controllers

  • auth.controller.js: handle signup & signin actions
  • user.controller.js: return public & protected content

models for Sequelize Models

  • user.model.js
  • role.model.js

server.js: import and initialize neccesary modules and routes, listen for connections.

Implementation

You can find step by step to implement this Node.js App in the post:
Node.js – JWT Authentication & Authorization with JSONWebToken example

Front-end with Vue.js & Vuex

Overview

Our Vue.js App can be summarized in component diagram below:

vuejs-jwt-authentication-vuex-project-overview

Let me explain it right now.

– The App component is a container with Router. It gets app state from Vuex store/auth. Then the navbar now can display based on the state. App component also passes state to its child components.

Login & Register components have form for submission data (with support of vee-validate). We call Vuex store dispatch() function to make login/register actions.

– Our Vuex actions call auth.service methods which use axios to make HTTP requests. We also store or get JWT from Browser Local Storage inside these methods.

Home component is public for all visitor.

Profile component get user data from its parent component and display user information.

BoardUser, BoardModerator, BoardAdmin components will be displayed by Vuex state user.roles. In these components, we use user.service to get protected resources from API.

user.service uses auth-header() helper function to add JWT to HTTP Authorization header. auth-header() returns an object containing the JWT of the currently logged in user from Local Storage.

Technology

– vue: 2.6.10
– vue-router: 3.0.3
– vuex: 3.0.1
– axios: 0.19.0
– vee-validate: 2.2.15
– bootstrap: 4.3.1
– vue-fontawesome: 0.1.7

Project Structure

The structure of Vue front-end project is simple:

vuejs-jwt-authentication-vuex-project-structure

You can understand it properly without any explanation.

Implementation

You can find step by step to implement this Vue – Vuex App in the post:
Vue.js JWT Authentication with Vuex and Vue Router

Conclusion

Now we have an overview of Node.js Express + Vue.js Authentication example using JWT and Vuex along with flow for signup/login actions.

We also take a look at Node.js Express server architecture for JWT Authentication using jsonwebtoken & Sequelize, as well as Vue.js project structure for building a front-end app working with JWT.

Next tutorials will show you more details about how to implement this interesting system:
– Back-end: Node.js – JWT Authentication & Authorization with JSONWebToken example
– Front-end: Vue.js JWT Authentication with Vuex and Vue Router

Happy learning, see you again!

Further Reading

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